The History of The Jyotirlinga Mahakal Ujjain(The city of Temple)
Mahakal , dedicated to lord shiva one of the
But all bowed down before Mahakal and spread endowments and alms to the deserving. Several Salivate temples, for example, those of 84 Mahadevas existed here. This reality should especially be underlined that when every corner and nook of Ujjain has been dominated by archaeological monuments housed by the pictures of their individual deities, the development and progress of Mahakala temple along with its religion cultural milieu was not in any way neglected.
Among lots of the earliest texts written during this period of time, which sung the importance and glamour of the temple, both Harsacharit and Kadambari of Banabhatta, Naisadhacharit of Sri Harsa, and also Navasahasamkacharit of Padmagupta are notable. It appears that through the Paramara interval, a collection of crisis prevailed over Ujjain along with the Mahakala temple.
But quite soon the Paramaras rejuvenated everything. A contemporary Mahakala Inscription testifies the fact that during the subsequent Eleventh c. and early Aztec c., the Mahakala temple was re-built throughout the reign of Udayaditya and Naravarman. It was built in the Bhumija type of design, very favourable to the Paramaras. Remains offered from the temple-complex and the neighbouring areas authenticate this truth.
The temples of this style were either Triratha or Pancharatha in the plan. The main characteristic of identification of such temples had been its star-shaped plan along with the share. So far as the sikhara is concerned, urusrngas (mini-spires), normally of strange amounts, gradually decreasing in size in rows between the well-decorated spines (haravali or lata) rose up in the cardinal points in the Chityaas along with the Sukanasas ultimately surmounted from the Amalaka. Each area of the temple was glutted with decorative motifs or images.
Upper parts of the temple rested on the robust and well-designed pillars and pilasters. Such temples, according to the contemporary Silpa-sastras contained the pictures of various god and goddesses, Nava Grahas (Nine planets), Apsaras (celestial damsels), female dancers, anucharas (attendants), Kichakas etc.. ) The sculptural art of the temple had been really classical and classical. Besides the Saivite images of Nataraja, Kalyanasundara, Ravananugraha, Gajantaka, Sadasiva, Andhakasura-slayer, Lakulisa etc., the temples had been embellished with the pictures of Ganesa, Paravati, Brahma, Visnu, Surya (Sun-god), Sapta Matrkas (Seven mother-goddesses) etc.. These pictures had been really expressive, well-decorated, sculpturally perfect and carved according to ancient and Puranic texts.
The behavior of rituals lasted in some way or another. Similar course is created from Vikramacharit and Bhojacharita written in 15th c. AD. When did the Mahakala temple first come in life, isn’t easy to tell. On the other hand, the event may be assigned to the Pre-historic period. Puranas narrate it was first established by Prajapita Brahma. There’s reference to this appointment of wolf Kumarasena by warrior Chanda Pradyota at 6th c. BC for taking care of the law and order cases of Mahakala temple. Mahakala temple is also mentioned in several ancient Indian poetic texts.
According to these texts, the temple was really glorious and magnanimous. Its foundation and stage were constructed of stones. The temple rested on the wooden pillars. There had been no sikharas about the temples before the Gupta period. The roofs of woods had largely been horizontal. Possibly because of this truth, Kalidasa in Raghuvansam clarified this temple as’Niketana’. The palace of the king was in the neighborhood of the temple. From the first portion of the Meghadutam (Purva Megha), Kalidasa provides a fascinating description of the Mahakala temple. It seems this Chandisvara temple might have been a special instance of the then architecture and art.
It might be determined that how fabulous’d become the temple of the major Deity of the city which owned multi-storeyed gold-plated palaces and buildings as well as also the excellent artistic grandeur. The temple has been enclosed by high ramparts attached with all the entry-gates. At dusk the lively rows of glittering lamps enlightened the temple-complex. The whole atmosphere echoed with the sound of musical instruments. Thecharming and well-decorated damsels added a lot at the aesthetic beauty of this temple.
The echo of this Jaya-dhvani (Allow the Lord be victories) of the meeting of their devotees was heard far and wide. Priests remained busy in worshipping the Deity and chanting eulogies. The Vedic hymns were recited and Stutis were filmed , the painted walls and also well-carved graphics projected the artistic heights of their afternoon. A couple of Sanads issued by the Sultans of Malwa and Mughal emperors came to light in Ujjain which testifies that throughout the mediaeval period these Islamic rulers contributed some donations to priests for conducting worship, light the lamps and supplying the prayers to Divinity to the protection of the reign. Thus it’s clear that these Islamic rulers also had a regard for Mahakalesvara plus they issued financial assistance for its appeasement of Hindu subjects also. Maratha program was established in Ujjain in the fourth decade of Eighteenth.
The administration of Ujjain was delegated by Peshwa Bajirao-I to his faithful commander Ranoji Shinde, ” The diwan of Ranoji had been Sukhatanakar Ramchandra Baba Shenavi that was quite wealthy but unluckily issueless. On the ideas of many learned Panditas along with wel-wishers, he decided to spend his wealth for religious purposes. In this connection, he re-built the famous Mahakala temple in Ujjain during the 4th-5th years of Eighteenth c. AD.